Friday, May 14, 2010

The Poor Mans DMT Extraction Guide

The Poor Mans DMT Extraction Guide - A 100% Fat Free, Food Safe, Grocery Store Solution to DMT Extraction
by Spiceman

Several members here at the nexus have been asking me for sometime now to give this method of extraction a write up. It has been criticized by some, but for a fact this method of DMT extraction is exceedingly easy, and yes, it works. We will be using mimosa hostilis root bark in this procedure.

Keep in mind, this is not the advanced clandestine chemist’s ideal method of extracting DMT, however, this method will prove invaluable to the person who finds him/herself in a position of not being able to procure solvents or chemicals that the ideal methods would call for. Also, it will no doubt be a valuable tool to those who want a completely food-safe extration. Lastly, this is for those who are new to this field, and who feel unsure about using or even attempting to procure chemicals such as naptha or lye.

The real beauty of this tek is that you probably already have everything you need to extract either freebase or a salt of DMT right there in your kitchen cabinet. If not, you can buy everything you need at your local corner grocery store. This tek, although making use of sometimes even the fattiest and crudest solvents, yeilds a 100% fat and oil free product. The final product, every time, will be fine snow-white crystals or snow-white crystalline powder (if freebased, certain salts are hygroscopic and are always in a gooey state. Also, every type of oil has not been tried, so it’s possible that diffrent oils could pick up other alkaloids "jungle" that will tint the end product.) This tek is workable and almost impossible to screw up by even the most chemistry-naive extractor.

Although somewhat void of exact amounts, volumes, and measurements, it should give a strong enough general overview to carry anyone through.

What you'll need:

Sodium carbonate (washing soda) This is a stronger base than baking soda but can be made by baking baking soda itself in the oven at about 350° for a couple hours to make sodium carbonate. It can also be purchased in most grocery stores right beside the baking soda, labelled as washing soda.

Note: Lime, aka calcium carbonate may also be used to work with this tek. Keep everything the same and simply substitute lime for the soda if so desired. Results will be the same.

90% rubbing (isopropyl) alcohol, ethyl alcohol, or acetone, (methyl works but voids the food safe aspect, however it is completely safe if evapporated entirely.) Less than 90% alcohol will also work, but will result in small amounts of sodium carbonate remaining in the end product. This is completely harmless, and can be cleaned by repeating the process a few times. Acetone is prefferable here.

Any type of vegetable oil – Canola oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, corn oil, soybean oil, etc. A mixture of these will work as well, (even lard—aka animal fats—would work here if kept hot). All of the above oils have been tested and did an excellent job of dissolving freebase DMT. The only oils used "fully" in the procedure was canola oil, sunflower oil, mixed vegetable oil, and hot lard. All of them passed with flying colors. The lard actually worked beautifully, but you have to keep it hot. Traditional solvents—naptha, ether, etc. —work great here but voids the food-safe aspect. If you want to use them, you can.

Some type of acid – Such as lemon juice, vinegar, vitamin c, etc.

Procedure:

Mix 1 gram of sodium carbonate for every gram of powdered mimosa hostilis root bark you have in a large glass or metal pan (glass is better). Slowly add water to the bark and carbonate mixture while stirring, until a thin pasty consistency is achieved. At this point, we have to ensure the reaction can take place smoothly, and that the heat can flow through the mixture somewhat evenly, by adding enough water. At the same time, we want to keep it a little on the thick side (basically, it’s easier to handle this way). Just eyeball it. The consistency of thin oatmeal is perfect.

What you should have now is a somewhat thick sludge made up of water, bark powder, and sodium carbonate. For every 50 grams of bark used, add ½ cup of your vegetable oil to this mix. Set this mixture on low heat and bring up the temperature until it is hot, and steams when stirred.

This mixture should be kept hot, but should not boil. Once it is hot, maintain the temperature for 1-2 hours. During that time, the mixture should be well and very gently stirred every few minutes. Water should be periodically added to maintain the consistency of the sludge. Just don't let it dry out, you want it to have the same moisture content during the entire process. The heat, time, and agitation during this phase spurs on the reaction, ensuring that the weak base actually does the work and freebases all the alkaloids.
Note: If you think you got your original sludge too thin by adding too much water at any point, you can use the above phase to reduce it. If it’s too thin, allow it to "steep" until the desired consistency is reached.
Mix up some acidic water. For every gallon of water, add 1.5 cups of vinegar or 1 cup lemon juice, and measure out an equal amount of this acidic water for the amount of oil that you have. If you have 2.5 cups oil, you'll need 2.5 cups acidic water, a little more won’t hurt, but probably wont help either.

When at least an hour has passed (two can’t really hurt), then use something like a turkey baster/dropper type device to remove the oil and add it to your acidified water. If your sludge is thick enough you can probably pour the oil off. Stir gently for several minutes. The goodies will attach to the acid in the water forming that particular salt, migrating to the water, leaving the oil on top.

After several minutes of mixing with the acidic water, the oil is removed and added back to the original basic bark mixture. This process is repeated a total of three times, each time using the same oil and each time "steeping" for an hour or so. Also, each time the oil is removed, fresh acidic water is used, and at the end, combined.
If a salt of DMT is desired, say for oral use, then at this point after the oil is removed, the water should be allowed to evaporate and the remaining material washed with acetone to yeild beautiful salted DMT crystals.
If freebase DMT is the goal, then at this point the acidic water is made basic by adding more of our sodium carbonate. I'd say about a cup for every three cups acidic water you have should do it.

The water is now evaporated. This proccess is slow and requires a bit of patience if you are doing a larger extraction. Use a small fan and apply low heat to speed up the evaporation proccess. At this point you will be left with freebase DMT and “washing soda”. This material is scraped up and placed into a small dish.

Here, one must retrieve the freebase DMT from the washing soda. There are several ways of doing this. Acetone is prefferable here, however most people don't have acetone handy. Instead, we can use high proof alcohol. 90% isopropyl (rubbing alcohol) will do great here and is available at your local Wal-Mart. 70% can be used but keep in mind that the 30% water present will carry over a good amount of the washing soda. This, of course, is completely harmless but undesirable. This can be somewhat remedied by repeating the washes with alcohol.

Completely dissolve the powder in acetone, rubbing alcohol or high proof whiskey (anything other than Everclear will leave a taste). The washing soda will be left behind, and at this point your goodies are dissolved in the acetone or whatever solvent you used here. Collect the liquid, being careful to leave the washing soda powder behind. Rinse this powder three times and combine the liquid from all three rinses.

Use a small fan to quickly evaperate the combined solvent rinses to leave behind beautifully white DMT crystals, if a good solvent was used at the end. A small amount of washing soda are the only impurities that could be present. The weaker your alcohol (if used in place of acetone), the more washing soda will be pulled along with the DMT. Harmless, but indeed undesirable. 90% rubbing alcohol from Wal-Mart or the dollar store (at least in the states) will do just fine.

The purity of the end product can be improved by redissolving in solvent and leaving behind anything insoluble, and re-evaporating to leave behind purer crystals each time.

This certainly is not the best method for extracting DMT, as was previously stated. However, it does work. This now makes it possible for many people who would not, or could not previously attempt an extraction—for any of several reasons—to now do so. Thanks to those who inspired me to write this up, you know who you are! Peace and Godspeed!

DMT Extraction from Mimosa Hostilis Rootbark

DMT Extraction from Mimosa Hostilis Rootbark
by Marsofold

Text in italic was added from a person under the handle "Central Scrutinizer", which I found to be helpful.

Items Needed:

1. Blender
2. One Pound Mimosa Hostilis Rootbark
3. White Vinegar
4. Three Liter Crockpot
5. One Gallon Plastic Jug
6. One Gallon Glass or Stainless Steel Wide-Mouthed Container
7. One Gallon Glass Wine Jug
8. Lye Crystals
9. Varnish Maker’s and Painter’s Naptha
10. Glass Turkey Baster
11. Large Glass Baking Pan
12. Cellophane
13. Pair of Single-Edged Razor Blades
14. Funnel
15. Coffee Filter
16. Non-Soapy, Clear Ammonium Hydroxide
Q: Would this extraction work for reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), assuming you wanted 5-MeO-DMT?
A: It certainly would! If you plan on doing it, remember that there's only 0.02% DMT in Phalaris, so you’re going to need a hell of a lot. Also, it would be best to do around 3 defats after the acid water.
Break 1 pound of Mimosa Hostilis rootbark into 1" pieces using new heavy-duty wire cutters, then grind it all up in a glass-topped blender, a little at a time. Grind the rootbark up to 1mm in diameter or smaller. Finer is better.

Polar Extraction: Premix in an empty 1 gallon plastic jug: 1 quart white vinegar & 3 quarts water. Put the ground up Mimosa in a 3 liter crockpot, then fill it with the water/vinegar solution. Stir well and turn it on "high." After 2 hours, remove the crockpot ceramic liner, hold the lid on slightly offset, and pour off most of the liquid into a 1 gallon wide-mouthed glass or stainless container. Add the remaining water/vinegar solution to the crockpot again. Stir well and turn it on "high." After 2 hours, remove the crockpot ceramic liner, hold the lid on slightly offset, and pour off all of the liquid into the same container again. Discard the rootbark fiber and save the two combined extractions in the 1 gallon container. Allow the vegetable particles in the extraction in the 1 gallon container to settle to the bottom overnight. Then pour off the liquid into an empty 1 gallon glass wine jug, being careful not to pour off any of the vegetable sludge at the bottom. Discard the sludge and keep the contents of the wine jug. Use three water-vinegar extractions rather than two. Divide up the water-vinegar mix so that you roughly use 50% for the first extraction, 25% for the second, and 25% for the third extraction. After the last extraction press out the fiber to squeeze the last bit of liquid from it.

Basification: Premix a solution of: 5 heaping tablespoons (70grams) of lye (Lowes Hardware, item # 146450, "Roebic Crystal Drain Opener") very slowly added to 1 pint of warm water, and stir well. Slowly add this solution to the wine jug, then cap the jug. Gently tilt the wine jug back and forth for 1 full minute to mix. Basify to a ph of 13. If you don't have ph papers, basify till it turns black, then add an additional 25% of whatever amount of basification solution you used. This is to guarantee that you're at a ph of 13. The brown foam you see floating on top of the basified extract after tilting the jug should flatten out to a thickness of no more than 1/2" after 45 minutes or so if you've used enough lye. Add a bit more lye and re-tilt if it's thicker than that.

Non-polar Extraction: Add 275ml of (Ace Hardware) VM&P Naptha to the wine jug. Add exactly enough warm water to the jug to raise the liquid level to an inch below the top. Cap the jug. Gently tilt the wine jug slowly back and forth for 5 full minutes to mix the contents. Allow the jug to sit undisturbed on a table for at least 3 hours. There should now be two layers visible in the jug, a lower dark one and a smaller clear one on top filling the neck of the jug. Use a glass turkey baster to suck up the top clear layer into a large glass baking pan. Be very careful not to suck up any of the lower brown foam/black liquid layer.

Freeze-Precipitation: Cover the glass baking pan with plastic wrap and place it in a freezer for 3 days to precipitate the DMT crystals. Remove the pan from the freezer and quickly lift the plastic wrap from a corner of the pan. Tilt the pan and slowly pour off all of the naptha through the exposed corner, being careful not to dislodge the crystals stuck to the bottom of the pan. Re-seal the corner of the pan by stretching the plastic wrap back over it. Allow several hours for the pan to reach room temperature, then remove all of the plastic wrap. Allow the crystals in the pan to completely dry out overnight in a cool place. Then use a pair of single-edged razor blades to scrape up the impure DMT crystals. The freeze-precipitation technique is a double-edged sword. Very convenient and high quality, but highly dependent upon knowing the approximate amount of DMT expected to be precipitated. If you use too much naptha, then only a little bit precipitates out. If you use too little, then it doesn't extract it all out of solution. It is the simplest case of re-crystallization. The best way using it if you aren't very sure of the yield is to use a slight excess to extract, then evaporate it down to 10% of the original volume. THEN freeze it. This will pretty much guarantee excellent results. For example: For a pound of rootbark use 500 milliliters of naptha to extract. Then evaporate it down to 50 milliliters. Then freeze it and filter out the crystals. By the way, you must very quickly filter it within a minute or two after removal from the freezer so it doesn't have any time to warm up. And your freezer can't be marginally cold. If it doesn't freeze ice cream HARD, then it isn't cold enough. -20C is about where it should be.

Ammonia Wash: Prepare a filter setup by placing a funnel into a quart jar and putting a small coffee filter paper into the funnel. Place the impure DMT crystals into the filter paper. Be sure that the crystals are absolutely dry before proceeding to the next step. Chill a bottle of non-soapy, clear ammonium hydroxide (Ace Hardware, "Janitorial Strength Ammonia") in a refrigerator. Slowly pour 35ml of the cold ammonia over the crystals (still in the filter paper) to wash them. Remove the filter paper from the funnel, spread it out flat and allow the crystals to completely dry out. You will now have 2-1/2 grams of white crystal DMT. Mix it with some dried parsley and smoke a little in your favorite pipe!


Thursday, May 13, 2010

LSA Extraction

LSA Extraction from Morning Glory Seeds 
by Stretchman

LSA is a naturally occurring psychedelic found in many plants such as morning glory and hawaiian baby woodrose seeds. It is chemically similar to LSD, but with slightly similar effects. In this article you can learn how to extract this component from the seeds of the common garden "pest", morning glory.
Acquire a large quantity of morning glory seeds. Keep in mind that 500 seeds equal one decent dose. Experiment on your own to find the gram/seed ratio which I have long since forgotten. Therefore, supply yourself accordingly (this could get expensive unless you grow your own). The following seeds have been used to awesome effect:

  • Heavenly Blue
  • Pearly Gates
  • Flying Saucers

Choose organically grown! Either that or spend a long time washing your seeds with dish soap, and that method is not exactly foolproof for ridding your seeds of any extracurricular poisons the nice people at the seed company have seen fit to include.

Also invest in some Petroleum Ether. This goes by the name of Naptha/Naphtha or Varnish Maker’s and Painter's Naphtha, available (last I checked) at [large hardware store] and other places. Not to be confused with diethyl ether, which is some bad shit, has to be disposed of by the bomb squad, etc. Don't fuck with that, get yourself some "pet. ether". Ostensibly free from adulterants, pet. ether is a handy solvent to have around the house.

Now, get a hold of the highest proof alcohol you can possibly obtain. Clear Spring grain alcohol is one of my favorites (180 proof) but the quality of the end product rests upon the highest proof alcohol you can get your hands on! Reagent grade ethanol, or some 200 proof shit from some reputable moonshiner (better make damn sure he/she's reputable, don't want lead poisoning from some refurbished auto part that has found new life as part of someone's still). On a related note, I wouldn’t recommend 151 Rum over a 100 proof beverage as rum has other shit dissolved in it that makes an extraction with 151 undesirable. Bigger is better, get some 180+ proof alcohol and go nuts, peoples. No half-measures here.

Procedure:

1. Grind seeds to powder. If you have an espresso grinder, awesome. I have had reasonable success with a regular coffee grinder. Pulse at no more than ten seconds at a time, (due to heat, and wear and tear on the machine), shaking during grind so that all the particles are evenly ground. Grind as fine as possible!

2. Place the seed powder into a Jar #1. Cover with petroleum ether. The guideline here is "can't use too much (petroleum ether), can use too little." 500 ml/500 seeds seems to be the basic rule, although a little extra ether can't hurt.

3. Put the lid on the jar and shake like crazy. Let sit for 20 minutes, shaking as much as you see fit.

4. Shake jar, then filter contents of the jar by pouring through a coffee filter into Jar #2. I find a strainer (with a diameter of 6" or so, equipped with coffee filter) useful.

5. If you like, save the filtered ether. You can get at least five more processing cycles out of it. Just don't drink it, please, for fuck's sake.

Most importantly, save the filter paper with seed powder on it!

6. Let the filter with the seed powder in it dry thoroughly. This could take several days.

7. In the interim, clean Jar #1 thoroughly.

8. Once the seed powder has dried, transfer this to the sparkly-clean Jar #1. Add 2-3oz. of alcohol per 500 seeds. Let this sit for three days, shake it if you like.

9. Filter the resulting substance. Discard the seed powder on the filter. Keep the alcoholic liquid for use.

Results:

The remaining liquid is what is known as tincture. 1-2oz. is standard for a decent mind-opening trip.

Author’s Notes:

The liquid extract will result in a wild, lucid trip, sort of like LSD but more visual. It is quite possible to do some intense reading on this plant; i.e. The Oxford Book of English Verse or Jung's Man and His Symbols. I remember dosing at night, and looking at the Xmas tree with wonder. I was also intrigued by the concept of circles, and toyed with the idea of rearranging the living room furniture into a circle. This plant gives you some strong-ass feng-shui. However, the prime time for this particular plant ally is morning. So, if you are still awake tripping, the sunlight streaming from the window will do magical things. My source says to dose at dawn for maximum communion with this fascinating plant.

To clarify, the LSAs as I have prepared them, are every bit as ragingly rugged as good old LSD, perhaps more so! The cleanness and the exceptional lucidity of the trip would make this, in my opinion, the ideal substance for the psychedelic neophyte. Either that or I just get along extraordinarily well with this particular plant.

How to Make an M-80

How to Make an M-80


By Unitednuclear.com – The chemistry and explosives experiments pages have since been removed from their site due to legal reasons. However, this article can still be retrieved (as of 2010) from http://www.i-hacked.com/content/view/13/48/


Building the M-80 is a very simple to follow process. In fact the hardest part of the whole deal is obtaining the materials needed. Before you even get started with your build you will need to make flash powder which you can learn how to do below.

Making Flash Powder

Flash powder is an explosive used in all firecrackers and larger Salutes such as M-80s and Aerial Bombs. Although there are many different formulas for Flash Powder, the safest (and the industry standard) is made just from potassium perchlorate and German Aluminum. It is far superior to any other flash powder formula in many respects.

The Formula

70/30 Flash Powder:
  • Potassium Perchlorate 70%
  • Aluminum Powder (German Dark) 30%
This is the industry standard flash powder mixture found in all firecrackers and Salutes. All firework formulas are measured ONLY by weight.

Both Potassium Perchlorate & Aluminum Powder can be purchased at Skylighter.com and many other pyrotechnic shops, both online and off.

For more information on measuring and weighing, see below.

Measuring & Weighing

Here's an actual formula for a white star [as an example]:
  • Potassium Nitrate 64%
  • Antimony Sulfide 4%
  • Sulfur 18%
  • Dextrin 4%
Make things easy on yourself, there are no complex calculations necessary. To make the above formula, you would just mix 64 grams of potassium nitrate, 14 grams of antimony sulfide, 18 grams of sulfur, and 4 grams of dextrin. If you wanted to make twice as much, just double all the numbers. If you want to make half as much, just cut all the numbers in half.

Cautions

Flash powders are high energy explosive mixtures and require the utmost caution in their manufacture. Of the flash powder mixtures listed below, the only one that should be used in Salutes (exploding fireworks) is 70/30 flash powder, made from potassium perchlorate & aluminum powder.

Older flash powder mixtures containing potassium CHLORATE or SULFUR are very dangerous, very sensitive to friction and static electricity, and have been known to explode without warning.

The addition of sulfur to flash powder formulations increases the possibility of spontaneous combustion by the formation of sulfurous and sulfuric acid, and the composition's sensitivity to friction & shock. It does not increase the report sound.

Although this particular flash powder is not terribly sensitive, it will still explode with sufficient impact or friction. Never grind, pound, or subject any flash powder to friction or shock. Under the proper conditions, it may explode with devastating results.


Procedure

The two chemicals used to make flash powder. The one on the left is potassium perchlorate, a fine white powder. The other is German aluminum powder, a dust-like, dark gray powder that doesn't even really look like aluminum. Although "bright aluminum" powder can also be used in place of German aluminum, it will only work well in large Salutes with very heavy walls and thick end plugs. German aluminum will make a much more powerful flash powder that will produce a great report, even in small Salutes with thin wall tubes.

Begin by weighing out 70 grams (70%) of potassium perchlorate.

Next, you'll want to sift the potassium perchlorate through a very fine screen or strainer to break up any small lumps. There are many strainers available in kitchen supply shops and it's important to get the proper kind. The screen mesh (the size of the holes in the screen) should be much, much smaller than an ordinary window screen. You want a strainer with the finest mesh possible. You should not be able to move the individual wires that make up the screen if you try to with your fingers. Using a screen like this will defeat the purpose. Large clumps will simply move the wires and make the holes bigger allowing larger particles to go through. These type screens may cost around $2.00 to $5.00, but a good quality Stainless Steel screen with a very fine mesh (a mesh that won't slide around) will probably cost you closer to $10.00 or $12.00. You can find these types of strainers at some supermarkets, and kitchen supply stores (try your local mall).

Weigh out 30 grams (30% / 100% total) of German aluminum powder. It will not be necessary to sift the aluminum powder through a screen.

Mixing

There are many ways to safely mix flash powder. We're going to show you the two most popular. One involves shaking the two in a plastic baggie, the other involves placing the two chemicals on a sheet of paper and gently lifting opposite corners until the composition is well mixed. This second technique is normally used with more sensitive mixtures, but there are those who only feel comfortable mixing any explosive mixture this way. Personally, we use the plastic baggie technique.

Pour the two chemicals on a sheet of paper.

Pour the chemicals into a Ziploc plastic baggie, making sure not to get any powder on the bag seal. If you do, the bag will not seal properly.

Although this type of flash powder mixture isn't very sensitive to static charge, we just like to add this optional step for the hell of it. "Static Guard" is a spray that you can find in your local supermarket/grocery store in the laundry supply aisle. It works great at dissipating static charges on a variety of materials. We like to spray it on just about everything (even our clothing) for added protection. On the other hand, we've fired 8" electrical discharges from a Van deGraff electrostatic generator, directly into piles of this type Flash powder and never had an ignition. Why then, do we bother to use Static Guard? The only answer is: "why not?” It's always better to be safe, than sorry, and why not take a few extra precautions when working with high energy materials? There’s always the possibility of some weird one in a million chance of an unusual occurrence, so why not take the extra second, spend the extra $2.00 and buy some added safety insurance. So, with that said, spray some Static Guard on your Ziploc baggie.


Shake the bag well to blend the two chemicals together.

Pour the mixture out, onto a sheet of paper, and you've got a 100 gram batch of damn strong 70/30 Flash powder.


Building the M-80

Parts needed:

  • 1-3/4" Tubes & Plugs (3/4" ID, 1/8" Wall, 1-3/4" Long) (Search Google) 
  • Flash Powder 
  • "Visco" Safety Fuse (Available at local gun stores, military surplus stores, and online) 
  • Tubes and fuse are available online. At the time of this writing they were available on eBay (search for cardboard tube). If you find that they are no longer available when you read this, a quick Google search should find them.

Exploding fireworks are known as "Salutes", which include anything from a firecracker to quarter sticks. M-80s are Salutes that were originally used to simulate gunfire during military training. They were also sold in the U.S. until the Child Protection Act banned them in 1966.

Originally, M-80s were approximately 1-1/2" x 9/16" (inside) diameter cardboard tubes filled with Flash Powder. Several slightly different variations existed by different names (such as the "Silver Salute", "Block Buster", and "Ash Can"), but in general, all the devices were functionally identical.

A lot of times we get asked: "Which Salute was the strongest - a Cherry Bomb, an Ash Can or an M-80?" Since explosive power in these instances is essentially derived from the quantity of flash powder contained in the firework, the M-80 was the strongest of the bunch. At 1-1/2" long and 9/16" inside diameter, it held the greatest quantity of flash powder. Next was the familiar silver "Ash Can" at 1-1/2" long 1/2" inside diameter, and finally a Cherry Bomb who's Flash Powder chamber was about 3/4" in diameter.

Firecrackers and Cherry Bombs are Salutes that require specialized assembly techniques or equipment, so we're not going to cover them in this section. The following is how M-80s, Quarter Sticks and similar Salutes were made.

Keep in mind that assembling and even possessing such a device is illegal and considered a very serious offense unless you are licensed to do so. Exploding fireworks have caused more injuries that any other type, mainly resulting from improper use. The explosive force generated can easily remove fingers from the hand or send flying particles into the eye causing permanent blindness. As tempting as it may be to do, never light one of these and throw it. There have been many recorded cases of defective fuse causing the firework to explode someone's hand.

Assembly Procedure

The components needed for assembling an M-80: Visco Fuse (also called "Cannon Fuse", "Hobby Fuse or "Safety Fuse"), Elmer's White Glue, paper end plugs, a cardboard tube, and of course flash powder. With the exception of some old Chinese Crackers and Lady Fingers, flash powder is the only composition used in exploding fireworks… yes, even firecrackers. The M-80 shown here is made from one of our "Beefy" M-80 cardboard tubes. It’s a bit larger and thicker than the older "Classic" M-80 tubes, but we prefer it because it produces a louder report and a deeper boom. This particular tube measures 1-3/4" long x 3/4" inside diameter, with a 1/8" wall thickness. Any size tube with matching end plugs can be use for making Salutes. Simply put, the larger the tube you use, the more Flash Powder it will hold, and the larger the report will be. Just as a reference, our "Beefy" M-80 tubes hold about 8 grams of flash powder, the M-160 tubes hold about 13 grams, and the Quarter Sticks hold about 19 grams.

Using a 1/8" drill bit, a hole is drilled in the side of the casing. This is where the fuse will be installed. You can also make the Salute with the fuse coming out one end, like a stick of Dynamite. This is called "End Fusing", which we'll cover later on this page. Contrary to popular belief, there is no difference in the report if you put the fuse in the middle of the Salute or in the end. It will work the same either way.

A bead of glue is spread just around the inside of one end of the M-80 tube. This will adhere the end plug to the case.

The End Plugs used are just heavy weight paper pressed into a cup shape that fit snugly inside the tube. There are many other ways to plug the ends of the tube if commercial end plugs are not available. Some old manufacturing techniques use plaster or similar thick pastes to secure the ends. These are dangerous and should not be used. When the M-80 explodes, these solid plugs become projectiles and can blind or penetrate the skin and must be avoided. It is a misconception that end plugs must be thick for a loud report. Stick with thin, lightweight plugs that will fragment & not travel far when the firework explodes. Plugs made from pieces of tissue rolled into a ball, pressed into the end of the tube and thoroughly covered with white glue are acceptable.

The End Plug is pressed into the tube until flush with the surface. Wipe off any extra glue that might seep out when the plug is inserted.





A piece of Visco Fuse is cut, no shorter than 3", and inserted into the tube. Make sure that the fuse is unobstructed and extends all the way to the bottom of the tube.

Lay a thin bead of glue around the fuse sealing it to the case.

 


The tube is then filled 3/4 full with standard 70 / 30 flash powder. This is the only Flash Powder that should ever be used in exploding fireworks of this type. Do not fill the tube more than 3/4 full.

 
Just as was done before, run a bead of White Glue just around the inside of the tube and insert an End Plug flush with the case. Wipe off any excess that may squeeze out.

Just for looks, the case can be painted red, signifying an explosive device. There are many different types of paper tubes available that already have a colored outer wrap.

The completed M-80. Remember that these devices were banned for a reason. It is suggested that the construction of M-80's and similar devices be left to the licensed pyrotechnician. Always follow the basic fireworks theme: light fuse and get away. Never light any exploding fireworks in your hand.

How to Make a Smoke Bomb (Anne Marie Helmenstine)

How to Make a Smoke Bomb
By Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
http://chemistry.about.com/od/demonstrationsexperiments/ss/smokebomb.htm


Introduction

The smoke bomb you would purchase from a fireworks store usually is made from potassium chlorate (KClO3 - oxidizer), sugar (sucrose or dextrin - fuel), sodium bicarbonate (otherwise known as baking soda - to moderate the rate of the reaction and keep it from getting too hot), and a powdered organic dye (for colored smoke). When a commercial smoke bomb is burned, the reaction makes white smoke and the heat evaporates the organic dye. Commercial smoke bombs have small holes through which the smoke and dye are ejected, to create a jet of finely dispersed particles. Crafting this type of smoke bomb is beyond most of us, but you can make an effective smoke bomb quite easily. There are even colorants you can add if you want to make colored smoke. Let's start out with instructions for the easiest/safest type of smoke bomb you can make:

Smoke Bomb Materials

1. Sugar (sucrose or table sugar)
2. Potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter (you can find this at some garden supply stores in the fertilizer section, some pharmacies carry it too)
3. Skillet or pan
4. Aluminum foil

How to Make a Smoke Bomb

1. Pour about 3 parts potassium nitrate to 2 parts sugar into the skillet (5:3 ratio is also good). Measurements don't need to be exact, but you want more KNO3 than sugar. For example, you can use 1-1/2 cups KNO3 and 1 cup sugar. If you use equal amounts of KNO3 and sugar, your smoke bomb will be harder to light and will burn more slowly. As you approach the 5:3 KNO3 sugar ratios, you get a smoke bomb that burns more quickly.
2. Apply low heat to the pan. Stir the mixture with a spoon using long strokes. If you see the grains of sugar starting to melt along the edges where you are stirring, remove the pan from the heat and reduce the temperature before continuing.
3. Basically you are caramelizing sugar. The mixture will melt and become a caramel or chocolate color.

Continue heating/stirring until the ingredients are liquefied. Remove from heat.

4. Pour the liquid onto a piece of foil. You can pour a smaller amount onto a separate piece, to test the batch. You can pour the smoke bomb into any shape, onto an object, or into a mold. Soup or coffee cans are a common and easy to use containers. The shape and size will affect the burning pattern.
5. If you aren't going to clean your skillet immediately, pour hot water into the pan to dissolve the sugar (or else it will be harder to clean). Clean up any residue you may have spilled out of the pan, unless you want mini-smoke bombs on your stovetop.
6. Allow the smoke bomb to cool, then you can peel it off the foil.

Powerful Mk 13 Smoke Flare being used in aircrew survival training.

How to Use a Smoke Bomb

The solid smoke bomb material is flammable and can be lit directly. You can light your smoke bomb using a lighter, preferably one of the long-handled types used for barbeque grills. Only light your smoke bomb in a well-ventilated area, on a surface that won't catch fire. The smoke bomb will burn vigorously (more slowly with a higher percentage of sugar) with a purple flame.

Alternatively, you could place a short length of wick into the smoke bomb when you pour it, and then light the wick.

Additional Smoke Bomb Recipes

No-Cook Smoke Bomb or Powdered Smoke Bomb
A variation on the saltpeter/sugar recipe is to replace the granulated sugar with powdered sugar (icing sugar). The powdered sugar and potassium nitrate are sifted or mixed together and left in powdered form. The powder is ignited to form smoke.

Zinc & Sulfur Smoke Bomb
- Zinc Filings - Zinc Powder
- Sulfur Powder

Mix the zinc and sulfur. Insert a red-hot wire to ignite the mixture and produce smoke. This is a particularly smelly smoke bomb.

Black Powder Smoke Bombs

Black powder (gunpowder) or pyrodex can be mixed with other substances to produce a lot of smoke:

1. As a powder, mixed with sugar and sulfur
2. Mixed with sawdust
3. With sugar, sulfur, and a bit of material from a road flare (red flame)

Make Colored Smoke Bombs

The recipes for colored smoke bombs require chemicals that may not be readily available unless you have access to a chemistry lab, but it's worth knowing how it's done. Parts or percents are by weight. The ingredients are sifted together and ignited to produce the smoke.

White Smoke Recipe
Potassium nitrate - 4 parts
Charcoal - 5 parts
Sulfur - 10 parts
Wood dust - 3 parts
Red Smoke Recipe
Potassium chlorate - 15%
para-nitroaniline red - 65%
Lactose - 20%

Green Smoke Recipe
Synthetic indigo - 26%
Auramine (yellow) - 15%
Potassium chlorate - 35%
Lactose - 26%

Reference: The formulations for colored smoke bombs came from Wouter's Practical Pyrotechnics, who cited the recipes as originating from L.P. Edel, "Mengen en Roeren", 2nd edition (1936).

White Smoke Bomb with Colored Flames

It's fairly easy to make colored flames by adding these chemicals to your smoke bomb recipe:

Chemicals Used to Color Flames

Red - strontium salts, most easily found in road flares
Orange - calcium chloride (laundry bleaching agent)
Yellow - sodium nitrate (common in chemistry lab)
Green - barium salts, such as barium nitrate (common in chemistry lab)
Greenish-Blue - copper sulfate (common in a chemistry lab, also found in many algicides for pool treatment)
Blue - copper chloride (common in chemistry lab)
Purple - potassium permanganate (common in a chemistry lab, also used in sewage or water treatment)
White - magnesium sulfate (epsom salts, found on laundry aisle or in a pharmacy)

Essentially, you are adding metal salts to get colored flames.

The metal salts listed here produce a relatively safe smoke. Use caution when considering other metals salts, as some compounds may produce toxic smoke.

This is a purple smoke grenade, used during a military training exercise. The typical colored smoke bomb is like a normal white smoke bomb, with a dye released into the smoke.

U.S. Air Force photo/Tech. Sgt. Scott T. Sturkol


Below is another article by the same author, which deals with making a more authentic colored smoke bomb. It is also probably a little easier to understand and follow.


Make Dense Clouds of Colored Smoke

The classic smoke bomb is a great project for the home or lab, producing lots of safe smoke, with purple flames. If you get dye and consider the shape of your creation, you can make a smoke bomb that billows clouds of brightly-colored smoke. This project is easy and safe enough to at home. Adult supervision is required.

Colored Smoke Bomb Materials

1. 60 g (3 tablespoons) potassium nitrate (sold as saltpeter in garden supply shops)
2. 40 g (2 tablespoons) sugar
3. 1 teaspoon baking soda
4. 60 g (3 tablespoons) powdered organic dye (found in laundry sections of the store as well as craft & hobby shops)
5. Cardboard tube (best is an iced push-pop tube (eat the treat first), or you could use a toilet paper roll or section of paper towel tube, or even a rolled/taped paper tube)
6. Duct tape
7. Pen or pencil
8. Firework fuse (hardware, rocketry, construction, or hobby shops, or scavenge it from a firework)
9. Cotton balls
10. Saucepan

Make the Colored Smoke Bomb Mixture

- Mix 60 g potassium nitrate with 40 g sugar in a saucepan over low heat. It's a 3:2 ratio, so if you don't have grams, use three large spoonfuls of potassium nitrate and two large spoonfuls of sugar (3 tablespoons and 2 tablespoons, if you feel the need to be precise).
- The sugar will carmelize and brown. Stir the mixture continuously until it resembles smooth peanut butter.
- Remove the mixture from heat.
- Stir in a spoonful of baking soda (rounded teaspoon is fine). The baking soda is added to slow down the combustion when the smoke bomb is ignited.
- Add three large spoonfuls (3 tablespoons) of powdered organic dye. Blue dye and orange dye are said to produce better results than the other colors. Stir to mix well.
- Construct the smoke bomb while the mixture is still hot and pliable.

Assemble the Smoke Bomb

- Fill a cardboard tube with the warm smoke bomb mixture.
- Push a pen or pencil down into the center of the mix (doesn't have to be all the way to the bottom but should be enough that the pen stands in the mixture). You could use a different shape, but the cylinder works really well.
- Let the mixture harden (about an hour).
- Remove the pen.
- Insert a firework fuse. Push pieces of cotton balls into the hole to tamp the fuse securely inside the smoke bomb. Be sure there is fuse left outside of the tube so that you will be able to light your smoke bomb.
- Wrap the smoke bomb with duct tape. Cover the top and bottom of the tube, too, but leave the hole area with the cotton and fuse uncovered.
- Go outside and light your smoke bomb!

Chemical Light - The Eerie Glow of Luminol

A fascinating demonstration of chemiluminescence - the production of light by chemical reaction. When the chemical Luminol is oxidized in the presence of a catalyst, it produces a bright, eerie blue glow...


In this experiment, Luminol will react with Hydrogen Peroxide and other reagents in a chemiluminescent reaction; a reaction that produces light with no heat.


Chemicals Required:
- Sodium Hydroxide
- Luminol
- Hydrogen Peroxide (3% drugstore variety)
- Sodium Ferrocyanide

Solution A:

1. Mix 5 grams of Sodium Hydroxide in 1000 ml of water.
2. When thoroughly mixed & dissolved, pour some of this solution in a small (50 ml) beaker and add 0.1 grams of Luminol. Luminol is difficult to dissolve so to help, tilt the small beaker to one side so the Luminol powder sinks to one side. With a glass rod or popsicle stick, keep smashing the Luminol powder until it all goes into solution.
3. When the Luminol is finally dissolved, pour the contents of the small beaker into the rest of the Sodium Hydroxide solution. This is your completed 'Solution A'.

Solution B:

Mix 10 ml of 3% Hydrogen Peroxide (regular drug store variety) in 1000 ml of water. Add in 0.25 grams of Sodium Ferrocyanide until dissolved. This is your completed 'Solution B'.

Demonstration:

Luminol produces a dim, sky blue colored glow that requires a completely darkened room to view. In a darkened room, simultaneously pour equal amount of solutions A and B into a large beaker, glass container, or using a funnel, down a spiral column for a dramatic effect (see image above). As soon as the two solutions come into contact, the glow will be produced.

- United Nuclear

Making a Superball

The familiar high bouncing & colorful superballs are actually Silicate based polymers that can be easily made by mixing two liquids together to form a solid with amazing elastic properties...

The familiar and colorful 'superballs' that bounce with amazing amounts of energy are actually Silicate based polymers. In the following experiment, two common liquids are mixed, and a reaction takes place that forms a solid that has the properties of rubber.

Chemicals Required:
- Sodium Silicate
- Ethyl alcohol or Phenolphthalein

Procedure:
  1. Measure 20 mL of Sodium Silicate solution and pour it into a small beaker. Sodium Silicate can be irritating to the skin so avoid contact and wear disposable gloves.
  2. Place 5 mL of Ethyl Alcohol or Phenolphthalein in another small beaker. If you use Ethyl Alcohol, the ball will be clear/white in color. If you use Phenolphthalein, the ball will be bright pink in color.
  3. Add the alcohol to the sodium silicate solution.
  4. Stir quickly with a popsicle stick or glass rod until the solid has formed.
  5. Gather up the solid polymer and while wearing disposable gloves, squeeze the material into a ball shape. Be patient and keep squeezing the material together until it no longer crumbles. It may help to moisten the ball occasionally by holding it in a small stream of water.
  6. Bounce your ball.
  7. Store the ball in a small plastic bag. If it breaks apart or gets distorted, simply squeeze it back together into a ball shape.

Reaction:
In Sodium Silicate, the Silicon is bonded to 4 oxygen atoms and is not linked in any chains. The Ethyl Alcohol has just two Carbon atoms. When Sodium Silicate and Ethyl Alcohol are put together, the Silicate particles begin to link up with each other to form long chains as the Ethyl groups replace Oxygen atoms in the Silicate ion. Some become cross-linked between chains. Water molecules are byproducts of the formation of the polymerization bond. This forms a large molecule - a Silicone polymer.

- United Nuclear

"Silver Tree"


Using a clean piece of Copper wire, water, and a glass container, make a pure Silver tree by extracting the Silver metal from a Silver Nitrate solution...

Heavy Copper wire segments bent in the form of a tree grow glistening pure Silver metal crystals in a Silver Nitrate solution. The Copper reacting with the mixture in turn causes the solution to turn blue.

Chemicals Required:
- Silver Nitrate
- Copper Wire (solid, #10 or #12 heavy gauge)

Solution A:

1. Mix a 4% Silver Nitrate solution (4 grams of Silver Nitrate in 100 mL of distilled water).
2. Strip the insulation off of some heavy gauge Copper wire. Standard 10 or 12 gauge 'Romex' solid copper house wire works very well. The Copper needs to be clean, bright & shiny. Old, oxidized Copper wire will not work.
3. The wire can be simply bent into a coil by winding it around a pencil, or a more elaborate design can be made depending on the size of the container and amount of solution you wish to prepare.
4. Simply place the Copper wire in the Silver Nitrate solution and leave it undisturbed. The slightest vibration will knock crystals off as they form and ruin the experiment. Pure Silver metal crystals will start to grow in under an hour. Ideally, the container should be left alone and undisturbed overnight.
5. Once the crystals have completely formed, the liquid can be carefully drained off leaving the Copper wire form completely coated with pure glistening Silver crystals.

- United Nuclear


Exploding Balloon


This self-inflating balloon explodes when held over a lit candle. A classic attention grabbing classroom demonstration...

In this classic classroom demonstration, Calcium Carbide will react with water to produce explosive Acetylene gas and burst a balloon.

Chemicals Required:
- Calcium Carbide

Procedure:
1.Squirt 3 to 4 ml of water into a balloon with an eye dropper.
2. Push a piece of Calcium Carbide into the balloon ( the Calcium Carbide piece should be no larger than 5 grams). Make sure to hold the balloon so the Calcium Carbide chunk and water stay in contact.
3. Tie off the balloon and give it a little time to expand.
4. Tape the balloon to the end of a yardstick and hold it over a lit candle.
5. The balloon explodes.

Calcium Carbide generates Acetylene gas when it comes in contact with water. As the gas is formed it slowly inflates the balloon.

Calcium Carbide and water is what was used to produce light in old miner's lamps before battery powered flashlights were popular.

- United Nuclear

Make Pure Sand


Very few places on Earth will one find pure, white Sand. It is easily made in the home laboratory with two common chemicals...

There are very few places on Earth you can find pure Sand. In most instances, impurities in the Sand give it an off-white or beige color. Pure, white Sand can easily be made in the home laboratory.

Chemicals Required:
- Sodium Silicate
- Sodium Bisulfate

Procedure:

1. Measure 5 mL of Sodium Silicate solution and pour it into a test tube. To this, add 5 mL of water. Shake until the solution is completely dissolved.
2. In a second test tube, dissolve 3.5 grams of Sodium Bisulfate in 10 mL of water. Stir vigorously with a glass rod until it is completely dissolved.
3. Pour the contents of the first test tube into the second. Mix thoroughly. A thick, jelly-like precipitate will be form in a few minutes. This substance is known as Orthosilicic Acid.
4. Spoon some of the Orthosilicic Acid into a porcelain crucible. Heat the Orthosilicic Acid over a butane or Bunsen burner or 5 minutes.
5. When the mixture is thoroughly dried, it will be reduced to a white solid. This substance is known as Silicon Dioxide, or pure Sand.

- United Nuclear

Negative X: Start a Fire With Water


A very popular chemistry demo. This combination of chemicals produces a highly water sensitive mixture that instantly ignites when a drop of water lands on it.


When a drop of water touches a small pile of this mixture, it instantly bursts into a blue-green flame, accompanied by a large cloud of smoke. This is an old formula we used to make when we were kids back in the early 1970s. If I recall, we made several small heaps and tried to hit each one with a squirt gun. We used to call it "Negative-X" (I have no idea why), but I'm sure the it's known by other names. It's a great attention grabbing classroom chemical demonstration.

"NEGATIVE-X"
Ammonium Nitrate 
14.0 grams
Ammonium Chloride
1.5 grams
Zinc Dust
34.5 grams

Comments:
  • Grind the Ammonium Nitrate and the Ammonium Chloride together in a mortar & pestle until they are a fine powder. Now pay close attention.... once the remaining chemical, Zinc Dust, is added, this composition will become extremely water sensitive. In fact, if it's humid outside or your chemicals have a high moisture content, the mixture may ignite at any time.
  • It is suggested that before you add the required amount of Zinc Dust, you move your experiment outdoors just in case accidental ignition occurs. As always, gloves and eye protection are absolutely called for.
  • Take about a teaspoon full of the mixture and make a small pile of it on the ground. Make sure the ground is dry and that there are no flammable materials nearby (dry grass, paper, etc.).
  • Press a little indentation into the top of the pile and add a drop of water.

QUICKLY STAND BACK!


In a second or so it will bubble, hiss and smoke, and instantly burst into a blue-green flame.

WARNINGS

You cannot store this mixture. It will eventually absorb enough water from the air to ignite on its own. Use all that you make each time. Never make large quantities at one time. Do not make this mixture on a rainy or humid day. It can spontaneously ignite at any time.

Also note that as soon as all the components are mixed, it will become extremely water sensitive and may spontaneously ignite without warning! Even a tiny amount of water will ignite the mixture. You must use this composition immediately after it is made. Do not mix it with other chemicals. It's recommended to only mix this formula & conduct this experiment outside.


Here's the chemical reaction that takes place:

  1. Cl- (from NH4CL) acts as a catalyst on the decomposition of NH4NO3:

Cl-

NH4NO3-----------------> N2O(g) + 2 (H2O)(aq)

  1. Water in the reaction causes the decomposition of more NH4NO3, which is an autocatalytic effect.
  2. The reaction melts the NH4NO3 and allows the oxidation of the zinc. The overall reaction is:

Zn (s) + NH4NO3 (s)------> N2 (g) + ZnO (s) + 2 (H2O) (g)

- United Nuclear

Uranium Extraction from Ore

Using the Alkaline Extraction method, remove the Uranium from Carnotite Uranium ore to produce Uranyl Tricarbonate. Part 1 of 2 experiments.


Uranium Extraction from bulk Carnotite/Gummite Uranium Ore


The Uranium contained in bulk Carnotite and associated Uranium ores can be easily extracted to form various Uranium compounds.


  • Typical Carnotite/Gummite Uranium ore. Uranium ore is available in bulk form from United Nuclear Scientific.

  • Use a hammer or rock crusher to smash the rock into a granular form.
  • Wear proper safety equipment (gloves, dust mask, eye protection) when breaking the rock so you don't get rock fragments in your eye, or inhale piles of ore dust.
  • Sift the crushed rock through a screen (a window screen or a spaghetti strainer will do).
  • This will separate the large chunks from the fine, granular material.

  • Weigh out 300 grams of the fine granular ore.

  • Pour the 300 grams of fine ore into the barrel of your Ball Mill.
  • A hard milling media is required, such as steel balls which are used here.

  • Place the barrel on the mill and let it run for approximately 2 hours.
  • This will reduce the ore into a very fine dust.
  • This is necessary so the extraction chemicals will be able to react with the ore material.
  • If Ball Milling is not done, very little Uranium will be extracted.

  • After 2 hours of milling, the ore is as fine as Talcum powder.

  • Separate the steel balls from the powdered ore by using either a magnet to pull out the balls, or dumping the barrel contents through a strainer.

  • Certain types of Uranium ore (Pitchblende, Uraninite) can be simply extracted with Nitric Acid. However, Carnotite and its associated matrix minerals are far too alkaline for Acid extraction and many of the minor Uranium ores will not dissolve in acid. Alkaline extraction is called for when dealing with Carnotite ore.
  • To begin, you'll need 200 grams of powdered Uranium ore, 50 grams of Sodium Carbonate, 25 grams of Sodium Bicarbonate (use Arm & Hammer Baking Soda) and 1000 ml of water.
  • Place a large flask with the 1000 ml of water in it on a magnetic stirrer/hot plate, drop in a spinbar and heat to about 70-80° C.
  • Set the stir speed to maximum and slowly add each ingredient into the water while it is being stirred & heated. Let the mixture heat & stir overnight.

  • The next day, turn off the hot plate/stirrer and set the flask aside to cool and settle for 1 hour.
  • After an hour, the heavy sediment will sink to the bottom leaving the cloudy extracted Uranium in a carbonate solution floating on top.

  • Pour the cloudy Uranium solution through a fine filter being careful not to let the bottom sediment to stir up or get into the filter.

  • The finished product will be a bright, clear yellow liquid: Uranyl Tricarbonate.
  • In our next experiment, we'll use Kerosene and the Solvent Extraction method to remove the carbonate from the Uranium.


Part 2 of this experiment, regarding uranium solvent extraction was never published, but there was this note:

The second step in the extraction process requires a mixture of Kerosene and Sulfuric acid. Due to the difficulty in obtaining and shipping Sulfuric Acid (it can only be shipped via freight truck) we're working on a way around using the corrosive acid to complete the reaction. Unfortunately, we're currently very busy with various Government contracts and probably won't have a chance to get back to devoting time to this experiment until January. Those that are familiar with both chemistry and the extraction process might want to try a strong solution of Sodium Bisulfate (in place of the Sulfuric Acid) mixed with deodorized Kerosene.